Apadana Palace of Susa was the winter palace of the Achaemenid kings. The palace was built due to the command of Darius I, around the years 515- 521B.C.
The palace was located in Susa and was built over the monuments and building of Elamite.
The walls were made of adobe and the columns were made of stone.
Darius's palace consists of different units including a Harem, a gate, a reception hall and three central yards. The interior walls of the palace are covered with bricks; the bricks were ornamented with the designs of the immortal guards, winged lions and lotus flowers and at the moment their remaining is being kept in different museums of Iran and around the world.
The area of the Apadana Palace is 10434 meters. The Apadana Palace, also known as the Court or Apadaneh, was reconstructed by Artaxerxes II.
The palace has a construction similar to a grange; it has three porches, each having 12 columns on their northern, eastern and westerns sides. The central hall is a 58 x 58 meter area and it encompasses 36 columns which are 20 meters high and their capitals are in the shape of cow heads.
Only 110 of the overall rooms and halls of the palace have been discovered so far. There are six yards inside the palace complex; three of the yards are vaster than the rest and are located on the eastern and western section of the palace. The yards are connected to the northern part of the palace through a long passage. The three smaller yards are located on the northern section of the palace. The yards were used as a means of lighting and ventilation for the rooms and buildings of the palace.
In 1880, a group of French archeologists dug the palace out of the ground, cut the columns and their capitals with saw and transferred them to France. Only a few of the bases and shafts of the columns are available at Susa at the moment and most of the objects are being kept at the Louvre Museum. The palace doesn't look the same as how it did during the reign of Darius
In her diary Jane Dieulafoy wrote:
Yesterday I came across a big cow made of stone. I was watching it with sorrow, it weighed about 12000 kilograms. Moving such an enormous object was impossible. Eventually I couldn't control my anger; I got a hammer and started destroying the stone animal. It was brutally attacked. As a result of the attack, the capital of the column (the head of the cow) was detached from the shaft like a ripe fruit.
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