Isfahan is on the alluvial plain of Zayanderud (the largest river in the center of Iran). It is one of the cities that is said to be as old as the country Iran. Isfahan was usually among the biggest cities of Iran throughout the history. Historians said that this city existed even before the Achenaed dynasty. This city used to be the capital of Iran for more than 900 years during Achaemenid and Sasanian Empires. Islamic army invaded Isfahan in 641 and from that time on the Islamic architecture started to grow there. This city was in its most magnificence and magnitude during Shah Abbas I's rule. He chose Isfahan as the capital and built a lot of marvelous buildings in it. Since that time, Isfahan has been dubbed "Nesf-e-Jahan" (Half of the world). At the end of the Safavieh dynasty, Afghans attacked the city and massacre the people. And after that Isfahan was ruined at the end of Qajar dynasty. Zell-e Soltan, Naser al-Din Shah's son, demolished many of its buildings and used the materials to build his own famous palace, called Zell-e Soltan Palace, in Tehran.
In Jelfa district, south of zayanderud, there exist 14 churches, the most well-known of which is Vanak Church which was constructed during Shah Abbas II time. This church includes paintings of Jesus Christ's life, ornaments, and stuccos. Vanak museum is also in this church.
This mosque, formerly called Shah Mosque or Soltani Mosque, was built by Shah Abbas Kabir in 1612-1631. From the architectural point of view, its tile works, great dome, and minarets are masterstrokes of 17th century. The dome is 54 meters and the minarets are 52 meters high.
This rectangle square in Isfahan is surrounded by other historical places, namely, Alighapoo, Abbasi mosque, and Shekh Lotfollah Mosque . It is 507 m long and 158 m wide. During Timurid dynasty it used to be smaller, but they expanded it at Shah Abbas I time.